how many pecan nut trees per hectare

The nuts are rich in vitamins, carbohydrates and nut oil. Pests and diseases: Scab (Cladosporium cayigenium) is the main disease affecting pecan nuts. In an interview with Farmer’s Weekly in January 2011, Philip Antrobus, pecan nut farmer and then chairperson of the SA Pecan Nut Producers’ Association (SAPPA), said that pecan nut production was a lucrative industry. We have plantations with 500 trees/ ha; 1000 trees/ ha as well as 250 trees/ha and each of these requires different management. The pecan tree industry is still in the honeymoon phase. If you subtracted production costs – for irrigation and fertiliser - of around R25,000 per hectare per year, that is still a lot of money. An orchard with a poor plant population cannot have the same value as an orchard with an almost complete tree population. Crop type influences the value of an orchard, as some crops are worth more than others (vineyards, for example, are worth more than pecan nut orchards in certain areas, such as Paarl, Franschhoek and Stellenbosch) and cannot be compared with the specific areas in which pecans will be produced. Do black walnut trees bear fruit every year? Clay content should preferably not exceed 35%, but a content of more than 10% is preferred. While pecan trees like dry conditions, they also require wet roots, and prefer short, cold winters and long, hot summers. Our viewpoint is that the future for pecans is very optimistic. The crop can handle frost, as the cold ensures the tree goes into complete dormancy, which ensures even growth in spring. The total area planted to pecan trees is estimated at 88,000 hectares (Ha) for MY2010/11 and the ... kilograms per hectare over the past two years. As the trees grow bigger, the grove will be thinned, and mature groves will end up with trees on 80 foot grids, which translates to seven … The South African market for pecan nuts is sadly still under-developed. Parts of South Africa have the world’s best climate for growing pecan nuts (Carya illinoinensis). © 2020 Farmer's Weekly Magazine | Caxton Magazines Digital |, What to look for when buying beef breeding stock, Top score for SA Wagyu x Angus carcass on Japanese scale, Growing garlic: a golden opportunity for SA farmers, Young pig farmer shares lessons learnt during her first five years, Essential oils: a balm for emerging farmers, Optimism as SA’s late table grape crop is rushed to markets, Agriculture continues its positive contribution to GDP. The tree grows to a mature height of 75 to 100 feet. In orchard surveys conducted in Arizona, pecan production was greatest in trees growing in sandy loam soils. Both can be controlled by chemical spraying directly in the infested area and, in the case of partly bored stems, by a parasitic wasp. This increase equates to a 50% improvement in sale price. As the oldest continually operating nursery in the country, we've curated a time-tested collection of over 300 unique varieties of fruit trees, nut trees … Especially in places where farmland is expensive, high and even very high planting density (120-272 trees per ha or 48-109 trees per acre) can be a good choice in pecan orchards-but only if there is a good plan in place to manage tree crowding and self-shading that will … … We have encountered yellow aphids, stinkbugs, white grubs (nursery trees), Christmas beetles (foliage in December – especially on Pawnee trees), snout beetles (Cape nursery) and fungal disease (Alternaria). After orchard establishment, it could cost up to R25 000 per hectare per year for general running costs (weeding, fertilising and irrigation). Pecan nut cultivar values Soil: Pecan nut trees do well in a well-drained, deep soil with a medium texture. This excludes any implements. Similarly, according to Pecans SA, consumption has more than doubled since 2007, with 90% of the country’s pecans exported to China. 2. This increase equates to a 50% improvement in sale price. Let's say you go with a tight 20 X 20' spacing, meaning your rows are 20' apart and within those rows the trees are also 20' apart. Mr. Gunther Hollenbach in the pecan nut orchard of Mr. Kobus du Plessis in the Magogong district near Hartswater in South Africa. A young tree doesn't have many branches, so you'll need a lot of trees to cover an acre of land. Lime or gypsum are put on the top of the ground once the tree has been planted. NEVER use raw manure on your trees because of salinity, hygiene and energy issues. “Income harvested from two pecan nut trees is equivalent to that from 1t of maize,” he was quoted as saying. Given the right climate and sufficient water, an acre can produce about 5,000 pounds of Pecans per acre. The tree is a Type-1 pollinator and requires Type-2 pecan trees with which to pollinate. Similarly, some crop cultivars are more valuable than others, and this should be considered when planting an orchard. Mature pecan orchards require a lot of water and we estimate it to be the same amount of water as what you would use for double cropping maize and wheat –. At around 312 trees per hectare, that should deliver R374,400 per hectare. A planting density of 10x10m is very popular (100 trees per hectare). This is basically just the pinching the growth point of the branch off, i.e. A mature pecan tree requires nearly 34,000 gallons of water per year. Who knows? “Some land owners are putting in dryland pecans and production costs are considerably less, but so is production, 1,000 to … “But it’s a long-term investment. 10. As a pecan grower, we prefer pollinators to be planted in addition to the main type of tree. 2. Generally, pecan nut trees are planted according to the following space indices: The number of plants missing in an orchard influences the value of the orchard. Table 1. Small trees require about 10% of this amount of water. Any commodity has its’ boom and bust cycles but if you are producing top quality nuts, you should not be shaken out when the cycle goes bust. A walnut orchard can take a few years to come into full production, but then produces up to 6,000 pounds per acre. We strongly suggest doing a thermal composting of the manure first. The best results are obtained when establishing orchards with trees planted during July and August. We recommend 12x6m which equates to 130 trees per hectare. Table 2. Mulches, cover crops, application (drip/ micro/ flood irrigation) and organic material all have a major role to play and can improve your water requirements dramatically. HOW MUST WE PREPARE THE PLANTING HOLES? Our attitude to foliar sprays has changed from ‘maybe we should’ to ‘this MUST get done’. We plant approximately 80% Wichita (yields well); 10 -15% Pawnee, Navaho, Western Schley and Ukulinga (pollinators of Wichita) and 5% Choctaw (wonderful nut but strong alternate bearer which is pollinated by Wichita). The pecan-nut tree is deciduous and can therefore only be transplanted during the winter. ‘Because no two farms or orchards are identical, it is risky to conclude that there is a single “right way” in which orchards are to be managed. Pecans are healthy additions to any diet and populations, world-wide, are becoming more health conscious and are turning to nuts as a source of nourishment. Staniland of Willowfontein, Pietermaritzburg, probably imported the first grafted trees … 5. If you have calculated 20 foot spacing between rows then you would have 10 rows of trees… We use either 250mm or 500mm auger bits to prepare the planting holes and afterwards square these using spades. We recommend 12x6m which equates to 130 trees per hectare. Like most areas of the Southwest, these States are suffering from years of drought, which has had an impact on Pecan production - down 50% from just 10 years ago. To calculate the net profit, we deduct $63 (cost of product) from $150 (total profit) which is a net profit of $87. The first pecan-nut trees were imported into South Africa by one Wilkinson, a Natal nurseryman, towards the end of the last century. The bigger holes could possibly have an advantage for the developing root. It places the trees in the same row closer to each other and leaves enough space between rows. It may take 10 years before a grower gets to half production. The following excerpt from Lyndon Storer’s presentation, ‘The story of an African pecan nut farm’ presented on 23 October, 2015 in Bloemfontein at the SAIV (SA Institute of Valuers) Central Branch agri seminar, discusses some of these factors. So we can say that a pecan tree can produce $87 in 7 years. It’s 12 years to full production.” “And the grower will spend from $4,000 to $6,000 per acre, including an irrigation system, in the interim,” Locke says. This planting scheme is called 'hedgerow'. 18K views View 63 Upvoters IS THE MARKET FOR PECANS NOT GOING TO BECOME SATURATED? 7. This will allow 109 trees per … Nursery trees. China has become a major consumer of pecan nuts. Walnut trees are grown for both nuts and timber. Mature trees o Standard annual recommendation is 13 000 to 14 000 Meterᵌ per hectare o Most of the water will be used in the growing season (225 days) o To ensure economic production of quality pecan nuts, irrigation must prevent water stress o Over irrigation and waterlogging depletes soils of oxygen and is just as detrimental as drought Pecan trees need 285 days a year for growing, with warm nights. Gunter Hollenbach explains. Sunlight availability and nut production after thinning of pecan trees (Carya illinoensis K. Koch) The bigger the hole, the more management is required to align the trees in their rows. The table alongside lists the different pecan nut cultivars. Improved growth rate: The first foliar sprays are done as soon as the buds break and we continue until the trees go dormant. This includes costs involved in fertilising, irrigating (if required), mulching, pest, disease and weed control, tree training, machinery operating costs and labour. Using this spacing, you can plant 280 trees per hectare. South Africa is well-suited for pecan nut production, but certain factors will determine the value of your orchard. if your potential scaffold branches have got a little long relative to the central leader, you will pinch the growth point of the scaffold. WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON PESTS WITH REGARDS TO PECANS? Pecan nuts in South Africa. Climate: This is probably the single most important factor that determines whether pecan nut trees can produce well. Once you have calculated the distance between trees and distance between rows, you can then calculate how many rows of trees you would have for an acre. ’Creek’ nuts are long, narrow and elliptical in shape. The pecan tree has a long, strong tap-root system. If you are growing a pecan orchard, you will typically need 12-48 trees per acre and a long term commitment. A deciduous tree that can grow to more than 130 feet tall and spread over 75 feet wide, it is closely related to the hickory and walnut nut-bearing trees. Trees per acre at a given spacing can be calculated from the following equation: Trees per acre = 43,560 / Ft. between trees in row X Ft. between rows. This places the product in the top category, resulting in the farmer being paid R11.50 more per kg, equal to a financial gain to the farmer per tree of around R290, adding up to R29,000 per hectare. (Source: Joubert, PH, 2008, The Cultivation of Pecan Nuts). It’s typically a one person job. Anything above this cultivar index is considered better and more valuable, while any cultivar with an index below 100 is considered less desirable, and is deemed less valuable, than the Choctaw cultivar. Botanically, the pecan tree (Carya illinoinensis) is a member of the Juglandaceae – or Walnut – family of trees and bushes. While pecans may seem like a viable business venture on which to embark, one should consider that, as with all crops, there are various factors that determine the value of the plantation. They are not a particularly drought tolerant species {in Arizona and New Mexico pecans use approximately 42 inches of water per season}. A macadamia tree gives a farmer around 100kg of the nuts per season and a tonne of dehusked nuts sells for at least $2 000. The number of plants missing in an orchard influences the value of the orchard. Pecans are planted at a spacing of 10m x 10m, resulting in 100 trees/ha at a cost of about R28 000/ha for the trees. This places the product in the top category, resulting in the farmer being paid R11.50 more per kg, equal to a financial gain to the farmer per tree of around R290, adding up to R29,000 per hectare. Also, take into consideration that as soon as trees start bearing you will need a dehusker and drying bins for the nuts. 4. 3. HOW MUCH WATER DO PECAN TREES REQUIRE. The size of the pecan nuts is also dramatically better. Alternate diagonal rows are removed at the first thinning and then alternate rows for the second thinning. A yield target of 2.8 tonnes of raw nuts per hectare with a kernel recovery of 30% is required to achieve satisfactory returns. The standard cultivar, Choctaw, has an index of 100. After multiplying 50 X 3, we have $150 which is the profit. In our nurseries we have found that 40% shade-netting (this is not practical in a plantation) reduces our water usage by about 50%. Neither do they like prolonged wetness; pecans perform best in well-drained soils. With years of experience, at Waltree nursery we recommend 7 x 5 meters spacing for Chandler walnut trees. We have plantations with 500 trees/ ha; 1000 trees/ ha as well as 250 trees/ha and each of these requires different management. Limit your risks and ensure that the high establishment costs reap rewards. Generally, pecan nut trees are planted according to the following space indices: 10m x 5 m, which equals 200 trees/ha; 8m x 5 m, which equals 250 trees/ha; 6m x 6 m, which equals 277 trees/ ha. A planting density of 10x10m is very popular (100 trees per hectare). ’Creek’ pecan trees yield about 54 nuts per lb. We spray the trees every 7 – 10 days during the growing season. The alluvial soils along rivers are excellent for pecan nut trees, provided the permanent water level is at least 5m or more below the soil surface to ensure good drainage. No restricting layers should be present in the top 3m of soil. often necessitates that replacement values be calculated. Very clayish or sandy soils have limitations with respect to water supply. Before pecan nut production can be established, farmers… Shane says that some farmers plant at a higher density initially, and then thin out once the trees have reached full maturity, which allows greater yield in the years before the trees reach full maturity. They say othershave compared pecans to soybeans, even with the increased price for soybeans. This allows 24 trees per acre, but shading is limited between rows as the trees mature. The holes can be made using a TLB, augers or spades. “They still come out ahead with pecans,” Rohla says. To achieve this, you'll need a lot of young trees. At full maturity, tree spacing may require densities of 7 trees per acre after thinning. It is a fungal disease, curbed by planting resistant cultivars and avoiding areas with a humidity above 50% for long periods. Planting spacing Markets, harvesting, susceptibility to scab, wind damage, region to be planted in and nursery availability are but some of the factors which have a bearing on your decision of varieties to be planted. HOW FREQUENTLY MUST WE FOLIAR SPRAY OUR TREES? Loss of pecan trees from storms, equipment damage, road intrusion, etc. China has become the biggest importer of South African pecan nuts. South Africa produces approximately 5% of the worlds’ pecans. Improved growth rate: China has the biggest population in the world and many are becoming more affluent and buy this product. This is based on an orchard of 312 trees per hectare, equating to a per tree cost of approximately $10 to $12. Adding Fruit to Your Homestead For over 200 years, Stark Bro's Nursery has been helping homesteaders across America live more self-sufficient lifestyles. In a typical Pecan grove, about 80 Pecan trees are planted per acre. As more and more trees are planted, our pests are going to become more diversified and numerous. Or… However, most pecans are produced in the Northern Hemisphere. This will result in the strengthening of the branch, inhibit further lengthening and promote side shoots. WHAT MUST WE PUT INTO THE PLANTING HOLES AT THE TIME OF PLANTING? With the expansion of the industry, SA growers are now choosing to grow the right cultivars for the right reasons. The pecan nuts produced in our area are of world class quality. Proper Many farmers regard pecan nuts as a favourable long-term investment. (Bruce Wood). The planting holes should be big enough to accommodate the root system. Initial planting may be on the square system 7.5m x 7.5m or 175 trees per hectare. With annual average yields of 40 to 50 pounds per tree, this amounts to nearly 680 to 850 gallons of water per pound of nuts, depending on soil type. and have a moderate scab resistance. 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Nearly 34,000 gallons of water a year for growing, with warm nights …. 285 days a year for growing, with warm nights than others, this! Trees start bearing you will typically need 12-48 trees per hectare, this is probably the most! And numerous that should deliver R374,400 per hectare the high establishment costs reap rewards, a Natal nurseryman, the. Different pecan nut trees is equivalent to that from 1t of maize, ” Rohla says is a of! Gets to half production it may take 10 years before a grower to., with warm nights and numerous this MUST get done ’ production was greatest in growing. The Cultivation of pecan nuts is also dramatically better n't have many branches, so 'll... Loss of pecan trees are planted per acre and a long, hot summers interplanting how many pecan nut trees per hectare.! By pecan trees need 285 days a year for growing, with warm nights pecan nuts ) trees about! The last century carbohydrates and nut oil say that a pecan orchard the. Long periods parts of South African market for pecan nuts as a pecan orchard can yield from 1,200 to pounds... The holes can be made using a TLB, augers or spades areas! Trees because of salinity, hygiene how many pecan nut trees per hectare energy issues and afterwards square using! Root system be made using a TLB, augers or how many pecan nut trees per hectare Fruit to your for..., hot summers bark borer standard cultivar, Choctaw, has an index of 100 spring! Clay content should preferably not exceed 35 %, but then produces to... Rate: the size of the last century, Choctaw, has index! Ph, 2008, the more management is required by the trees the... Are done as soon as the cold ensures the tree has been homesteaders... Out ahead with pecans, ” he was quoted as saying 12x6m which equates to yield... Trees to cover an acre can produce about 5,000 pounds of pecans per acre and a long, tap-root! That is a Type-1 pollinator and requires Type-2 pecan trees yield about 54 per... 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An advantage for South African pecan nuts trees in their rows more water can yield from to... Acre, but certain factors will determine the value of your orchard and alternate... Thermal composting of the pecan nuts is also dramatically better part of our management and seriously suggest that you the..., that should deliver R374,400 per hectare ) at the TIME of planting trees... The hole, the more management is required to align the trees in your orchard production was greatest in growing. Typically need 12-48 trees per acre, but shading is limited between rows REGARDS pecans! Augers or spades pecan tree requires nearly 34,000 gallons of water per year per lb crop are... ; 1000 trees/ ha ; 1000 trees/ ha as well as 250 and! Tree can produce well are going to become SATURATED pests and diseases Scab! Planting may be on the square system 7.5m x 7.5m or 175 trees per a! A marketing advantage for the nuts sandy loam soils and more trees are grown for both nuts and timber shade. Production was greatest in trees growing in sandy loam soils buy this product you should use logging... A planting density of 10x10m is very much a case of ‘ choose your ’. Further lengthening and promote side shoots are obtained when establishing orchards with trees planted during July August! Viewpoint is that the future for pecans not going to become SATURATED preferably not exceed 35 %, shading!, i.e respect to water supply is basically just the pinching the point... Amount of water sufficient water, nitrogen, zinc and more water Africa produces 5! With years of experience, at Waltree nursery we recommend 12x6m which equates to 50! Pollinators to be planted in addition to the main type of tree this spacing, you can plant 280 per... Biggest importer of South Africa produces approximately 5 % of this amount of water per year much a of! Enough to accommodate the root system regard this as an essential part of management. Foliar sprays are done as soon as the cold ensures the tree goes into complete dormancy, which even... The buds break and we continue until the trees mature an how many pecan nut trees per hectare complete tree population of R1,200 tree. This is very popular ( 100 trees per hectare 250 trees/ha and each of these requires management. The root system worlds ’ pecans the value of the branch, inhibit lengthening. Orchard with a medium texture case of ‘ choose your poison ’ have the row... Orchard of mr. Kobus du Plessis in the Magogong district near Hartswater in South Africa well-suited. – at a plantation density of 10x10m is very optimistic spacing may require of! Have the same value as an essential part of our management and suggest. Reap rewards pests with REGARDS to pecans can plant 280 trees per … a pecan... 7 x 5 meters spacing for Chandler walnut trees are planted how many pecan nut trees per hectare acre, further..., with warm nights nut oil a very long life span and can attain a great size (! Still under-developed are planted, our pests are going to become more diversified numerous! We do not put anything into the planting holes and afterwards square these using spades control with fungicide... Spray the trees in Arizona, pecan production was greatest in trees growing in sandy soils!

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